Ukraine - History | pozabeca.tk
The country imports most energy supplies, especially oil and natural gas and to a large extent depends on Russia as its energy supplier. The World Bank classifies Ukraine as a middle-income state. The public will to fight against corrupt officials and business elites culminated in a strong wave of public demonstrations against the Victor Yanukovych's regime in November Ukraine has managed to achieve certain progress in reducing absolute poverty, ensuring access to primary and secondary education, improving maternal health and reducing child mortality.
The economy of Ukraine overcame the heavy crisis caused by armed conflict in southeast part of country. As of , according to major economic classifications of countries such as gross domestic product at purchasing power parity or the Human Development Index, Ukraine is the second poorest country in Europe, after Moldova. Ukraine has a very large heavy-industry base and is one of the largest refiners of metallurgical products in Eastern Europe. Ukraine is regarded as a developing economy with high potential for future success, though such a development is thought likely only with new all-encompassing economic and legal reforms.
Issues relating to current corporate governance in Ukraine were primarily linked to the large scale monopolisation of traditional heavy industries by wealthy individuals such as Rinat Akhmetov , the enduring failure to broaden the nation's economic base and a lack of effective legal protection for investors and their products. Rail transport in Ukraine connects all major urban areas, port facilities and industrial centres with neighbouring countries. The heaviest concentration of railway track is the Donbas region of Ukraine. Although rail freight transport fell by 7. Transport by air is developing quickly, with a visa-free programme for EU nationals and citizens of a number of other Western nations,  the nation's aviation sector is handling a significantly increased number of travellers.
The Euro football tournament, held in Poland and Ukraine as joint hosts, prompted the government to invest heavily in transport infrastructure, and in particular airports. Kiev Boryspil is the county's largest international airport; it has three main passenger terminals and is the base for the country's flag carrier, Ukraine International Airlines. Other large airports in the country include those in Kharkiv , Lviv and Donetsk now destroyed , whilst those in Dnipro and Odessa have plans for terminal upgrades in the near future.
Antonov Airlines , a subsidiary of the Antonov Aerospace Design Bureau is the only operator of the world's largest fixed wing aircraft, the An International maritime travel is mainly provided through the Port of Odessa , from where ferries sail regularly to Istanbul , Varna and Haifa. The largest ferry company presently operating these routes is Ukrferry. In , Ukraine was ranked number 19 on the Emerging Market Energy Security Growth Prosperity Index, published by the think tank Bisignis Institute, which ranks emerging market countries using government corruption, GDP growth and oil reserve information.
Ukraine produces and processes its own natural gas and petroleum. However, the majority of these commodities are imported. Eighty percent of Ukrainian natural gas supplies are imported, mainly from Russia. Natural gas is heavily utilised not only in energy production but also by steel and chemical industries of the country, as well as by the district heating sector.
In , Shell started exploration drilling for shale gas in Ukraine—a project aimed at the nation's total gas supply independence. Russia was Ukraine's largest coal supplier, and in Russia blocked its coal supplies, forcing 22 Ukrainian power plants to shut down temporarily. In , all of Ukraine's nuclear fuel came from Russia. Ukraine has been a net energy exporting country, for example in , 3. Most of the nuclear fuel has been coming from Russia.
Coal and gas -fired thermal power stations and hydroelectricity are the second and third largest kinds of power generation in the country. The share of renewables within the total energy mix is still very small, but is growing fast. Ukraine has a large and steadily growing Internet sector, mostly uninfluenced by the financial crisis of — As of June, , there were According to A.
Kearney Global Services Location Index,  Ukraine ranks 24th among the best outsourcing locations, and is among the top 20 offshore services locations in EMEA, according to Gartner. Ukraine's IT sector employs close to , workers, including 50, software developers. This number is expected to surpass the , mark by In Ukraine occupied 8th place in Europe by the number of tourists visiting, according to the World Tourism Organization rankings. Kiev , Lviv , Odessa and Kamyanets-Podilskyi are Ukraine's principal tourist centres each offering many historical landmarks as well as formidable hospitality infrastructure.
Tourism used to be the mainstay of Crimea's economy but there has been a major fall in visitor numbers following the Russian annexation in The Seven Wonders of Ukraine and Seven Natural Wonders of Ukraine are the selection of the most important landmarks of Ukraine, chosen by the general public through an Internet-based vote. From to , the last year the populations in Donbas and Crimea were included, population had decreased by 6. The decline was because of a reduced birth rate, emigration and a small increased death rate, largely attributed to poor living conditions and low-quality health care.
Throughout the 19th and 20th centuries, millions of Ukrainians migrated to Canada , the United States , or other parts of the Russian Empire and the Soviet Union, creating a large Ukrainian diaspora. There are about 3 million Ukrainians living in Russia. Since about there has been a growing number of Ukrainians working in the European Union , particularly Poland. Eurostat reported that , Ukrainians received EU residence permits in , with , being to Poland.
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It is unclear if those moving to work in the EU intend this to be temporary of permanent. The industrial regions in the east and southeast are the most heavily populated, and about According to the Ukrainian Census of , Ukrainians make up Other significant ethnic groups include Russians Their number may be as high as ,, as many ethnic Koreans were assimilated into the majority population. According to the constitution, the state language of Ukraine is Ukrainian. Ukrainian is mainly spoken in western and central Ukraine.
In central Ukraine, Ukrainian and Russian are both equally used in cities, with Russian being more common in Kiev , [f] while Ukrainian is the dominant language in rural communities. In eastern and southern Ukraine, Russian is primarily used in cities, and Ukrainian is used in rural areas. These details result in a significant difference across different survey results, as even a small restating of a question switches responses of a significant group of people. For a large part of the Soviet era, the number of Ukrainian speakers declined from generation to generation, and by the mids, the usage of the Ukrainian language in public life had decreased significantly.
According to the Constitution of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea , Ukrainian is the only state language of the republic. However, the republic's constitution specifically recognises Russian as the language of the majority of its population and guarantees its usage 'in all spheres of public life'. A survey of the same Razumkov Centre, found that: Of the Ukrainian population, A further 1.
Judaism and Hinduism were the religions of 0. A further Among those Ukrainians who declared to believe in Orthodoxy, A further 2. The union of the Ukrainian Churches has not been recognized by other Orthodox Churches. It recognizes the primacy of the Pope as head of the Church while still maintaining a similar liturgical and spiritual tradition as Eastern Orthodoxy. Protestants in Ukraine make up 1. A further 7. The Razumov Center surveys reported an increase of those who declared themselves Orthodox in at Its immediate tasks were to help refugees and prisoners of war, care for handicapped people and orphaned children, fight famine and epidemics, support and organize sick quarters, hospitals and public canteens.
At present, society involves more than 6. Its Visiting Nurses Service has 3, qualified nurses.
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The organization takes part in more than 40 humanitarian programmes all over Ukraine, which are mostly funded by public donation and corporate partnerships. By its own estimates, the Society annually provides services to more than , lonely, elderly people, about 23, people disabled during the Second World War and handicapped workers, more than 25, war veterans, and more than 8, adults handicapped since childhood. Assistance for orphaned and disabled children is also rendered.
Ukraine's healthcare system is state subsidised and freely available to all Ukrainian citizens and registered residents. However, it is not compulsory to be treated in a state-run hospital as a number of private medical complexes do exist nationwide. All of the country's medical service providers and hospitals are subordinate to the Ministry of Healthcare , which provides oversight and scrutiny of general medical practice as well as being responsible for the day-to-day administration of the healthcare system.
Despite this, standards of hygiene and patient-care have fallen. Larger and more specialised medical complexes tend only to be found in major cities, with some even more specialised units located only in the capital, Kiev. A factor contributing to the high death rate is a high mortality rate among working-age males from preventable causes such as alcohol poisoning and smoking. As of March the Ukrainian government is reforming the health care system, by the creation of a national network of family doctors and improvements in the medical emergency services. Active reformation of Ukraine's healthcare system was initiated right after the appointment of Ulana Suprun as a head of the Ministry of Healthcare.
General practitioners will provide basic care for patients. The patient will have the right to choose one. Emergency medical service is considered to be fully funded by the state. Emergency Medicine Reform is also an important part of the healthcare reform. In addition, patients who suffer from chronic diseases, which cause a high toll of disability and mortality, are provided with free or low price medicine.
According to the Ukrainian constitution , access to free education is granted to all citizens. Complete general secondary education is compulsory in the state schools which constitute the overwhelming majority. Free higher education in state and communal educational establishments is provided on a competitive basis. Because of the Soviet Union's emphasis on total access of education for all citizens, which continues today, the literacy rate is an estimated These tests are later used for university admissions.
The first higher education institutions HEIs emerged in Ukraine during the late 16th and early 17th centuries. The first Ukrainian higher education institution was the Ostrozka School , or Ostrozkiy Greek-Slavic-Latin Collegium, similar to Western European higher education institutions of the time. Established in in the town of Ostrog , the Collegium was the first higher education institution in the Eastern Slavic territories. The oldest university was the Kyiv Mohyla Academy , first established in and in officially recognised by the government of Imperial Russia as a higher education institution.
Among the oldest is also the Lviv University , founded in More higher education institutions were set up in the 19th century, beginning with universities in Kharkiv , Kiev , Odessa and Chernivtsi and a number of professional higher education institutions, e. Rapid growth followed in the Soviet period. By a number of higher education institutions increased to with over , students.
The Ukrainian higher education system comprises higher educational establishments, scientific and methodological facilities under national, municipal and self-governing bodies in charge of education. Ukraine produces the fourth largest number of post-secondary graduates in Europe, while being ranked seventh in population.
Higher education is either state funded or private. Students that study at state expense receive a standard scholarship if their average marks at the end-of-term exams and differentiated test suffice; this rule may be different in some universities. For most students the government subsidy is not sufficient to cover their basic living expenses. Most universities provide subsidised housing for out-of-city students. Also, it is common for libraries to supply required books for all registered students.
Historically, Specialist degree usually 5 years is still also granted; it was the only degree awarded by universities in the Soviet times. It was approved in Ukrainian Parliament on 1 July Ukrainian is the dominant language in Western Ukraine and in Central Ukraine , while Russian is the dominant language in the cities of Eastern Ukraine and Southern Ukraine. In the Ukrainian SSR schools, learning Russian was mandatory; currently in modern Ukraine, schools with Ukrainian as the language of instruction offer classes in Russian and in the other minority languages.
On the Russian language , on Soviet Union and Ukrainian nationalism , opinion in Eastern Ukraine and Southern Ukraine tends to be the exact opposite of those in Western Ukraine; while opinions in Central Ukraine on these topics tend be less extreme. Similar historical cleavages also remain evident at the level of individual social identification. During elections voters of Western and Central Ukrainian oblasts provinces vote mostly for parties Our Ukraine , Batkivshchyna   and presidential candidates Viktor Yuschenko , Yulia Tymoshenko with a pro-Western and state reform platform , while voters in Southern and Eastern oblasts vote for parties CPU , Party of Regions and presidential candidates Viktor Yanukovych with a pro-Russian and status quo platform.
In total, Ukraine has cities, of them are labelled oblast-class, smaller raion -class cities, and two special legal status cities. These are followed by urban-type settlements and 28, villages. Ukrainian customs are heavily influenced by Orthodox Christianity , the dominant religion in the country. The Communist era had quite a strong effect on the art and writing of Ukraine. This greatly stifled creativity. During the s glasnost openness was introduced and Soviet artists and writers again became free to express themselves as they wanted. The tradition of the Easter egg , known as pysanky , has long roots in Ukraine.
These eggs were drawn on with wax to create a pattern; then, the dye was applied to give the eggs their pleasant colours, the dye did not affect the previously wax-coated parts of the egg. After the entire egg was dyed, the wax was removed leaving only the colourful pattern.
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This tradition is thousands of years old, and precedes the arrival of Christianity to Ukraine. Artisan textile arts play an important role in Ukrainian culture,  especially in Ukrainian wedding traditions. Ukrainian embroidery , weaving and lace-making are used in traditional folk dress and in traditional celebrations.
Ukrainian embroidery varies depending on the region of origin  and the designs have a long history of motifs, compositions, choice of colours and types of stitches. Embroidery motifs found in different parts of Ukraine are preserved in the Rushnyk Museum in Pereiaslav-Khmelnytskyi. National dress is woven and highly decorated.
Weaving with handmade looms is still practised in the village of Krupove, situated in Rivne Oblast. The village is the birthplace of two famous personalities in the scene of national crafts fabrication. Nina Myhailivna  and Uliana Petrivna  with international recognition. To preserve this traditional knowledge the village is planning to open a local weaving centre, a museum and weaving school.
Historical accounts of the time were referred to as chronicles , the most significant of which was the Primary Chronicle. By the s, Ukrainian romanticism began to develop, and the nation's most renowned cultural figure, romanticist poet-painter Taras Shevchenko emerged. Where Ivan Kotliarevsky is considered to be the father of literature in the Ukrainian vernacular; Shevchenko is the father of a national revival.
Then, in , use of the Ukrainian language in print was effectively prohibited by the Russian Empire. The ban was never officially lifted, but it became obsolete after the revolution and the Bolsheviks' coming to power. Ukrainian literature continued to flourish in the early Soviet years, when nearly all literary trends were approved the most important literary figures of that time were Mykola Khvylovy , Valerian Pidmohylny , Mykola Kulish , Mykhayl Semenko and some others.
These policies faced a steep decline in the s, when prominent representatives as well as many others were killed by NKVD as part of the Great Purge. In general around writers were repressed by what was known as the Executed Renaissance. The doctrine did not necessarily repress the use of the Ukrainian language, but it required that writers follow a certain style in their works. In post-Stalinist times literary activities continued to be somewhat limited under the Communist Party. Literary freedom grew in the late s and early s alongside the decline and collapse of the USSR and the reestablishment of Ukrainian independence in Ukrainian architecture includes the motifs and styles that are found in structures built in modern Ukraine, and by Ukrainians worldwide.
These include initial roots which were established in the Eastern Slavic state of Kievan Rus'. Since the Christianization of Kievan Rus' for several ages Ukrainian architecture was influenced by the Byzantine architecture. After the 12th century , the distinct architectural history continued in the principalities of Galicia-Volhynia. During the epoch of the Zaporozhian Cossacks , a new style unique to Ukraine was developed under the western influences of the Polish—Lithuanian Commonwealth.
After the union with the Tsardom of Russia , many structures in the larger eastern, Russian-ruled area were built in the styles of Russian architecture of that period, whilst the western Galicia was developed under Austro-Hungarian architectural influences. Ukrainian national motifs would finally be used during the period of the Soviet Union and in modern independent Ukraine.
The great churches of the Rus' , built after the adoption of Christianity in , were the first examples of monumental architecture in the East Slavic lands. The architectural style of the Kievan state was strongly influenced by the Byzantine. Early Eastern Orthodox churches were mainly made of wood, with the simplest form of church becoming known as a cell church. Major cathedrals often featured scores of small domes, which led some art historians to take this as an indication of the appearance of pre-Christian pagan Slavic temples.
Several examples of these churches survive; however, during the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries, many were externally rebuilt in the Ukrainian Baroque style see below. Examples include the grand St. Cyril's Church , circa 12th-century. All can still be found in the Ukrainian capital. Several buildings were reconstructed during the lateth century, including the Assumption Cathedral in Volodymyr-Volynskyi , built in and reconstructed in —, the Paraskevi church in Chernihiv , built in with reconstruction done in the late s, and the Golden gates in Kiev , built in and reconstructed in The latter's reconstruction was criticised by some art and architecture historians as a revivalist fantasy.
Unfortunately little secular or vernacular architecture of Kievan Rus' has survived. As Ukraine became increasingly integrated into the Russian Empire , Russian architects had the opportunity to realise their projects in the picturesque landscape that many Ukrainian cities and regions offered. Andrew's Church of Kiev — , built by Bartolomeo Rastrelli , is a notable example of Baroque architecture, and its location on top of the Kievan mountain made it a recognisable monument of the city.
An equally notable contribution of Rasetrelli was the Mariyinsky Palace , which was built to be a summer residence to Russian Empress Elizabeth. Russia eventually conquered the south of Ukraine and Crimea, and renamed them as New Russia. New cities such as Nikolayev , Odessa , Kherson and Sevastopol were founded. These would contain notable examples of Imperial Russian architecture. In , the capital of Soviet Ukraine moved from Kharkiv to Kiev. Previously, the city was seen as only a regional centre, hence received little attention.
All of that was to change, at great price. The first examples of Stalinist architecture were already showing, and, in light of the official policy, a new city was to be built on top of the old one. This meant that much-admired examples such as the St. Michael's Golden-Domed Monastery were destroyed.
Even the St. Sophia Cathedral was under threat. Also, the Second World War contributed to the wreckage. After the war, a new project for the reconstruction of central Kiev transformed Khreshchatyk avenue into a notable example of Stalinism in Architecture. However, by , the new politics of architecture once again stopped the project from fully being realised. The task for modern Ukrainian architecture is diverse application of modern aesthetics, the search for an architect's own artistic style and inclusion of the existing historico-cultural environment.
An example of modern Ukrainian architecture is the reconstruction and renewal of the Maidan Nezalezhnosti in central Kiev. Despite the limit set by narrow space within the plaza, the engineers were able to blend together the uneven landscape, and use underground space for a new shopping centre. A major project, which may take up most of the 21st century, is the construction of the Kiev City-Centre on the Rybalskyi Peninsula , which, when finished, will include a dense skyscraper park amid the picturesque landscape of the Dnieper.
Music is a major part of Ukrainian culture, with a long history and many influences. From traditional folk music , to classical and modern rock , Ukraine has produced several internationally recognised musicians including Kirill Karabits , Okean Elzy and Ruslana. Elements from traditional Ukrainian folk music made their way into Western music and even into modern jazz. Ukrainian music sometimes presents a perplexing mix of exotic melismatic singing with chordal harmony. The most striking general characteristic of authentic ethnic Ukrainian folk music is the wide use of minor modes or keys which incorporate augmented 2nd intervals.
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During the Baroque period, music was an important discipline for those that had received a higher education in Ukraine. It had a place of considerable importance in the curriculum of the Kyiv-Mohyla Academy. Much of the nobility was well versed in music with many Ukrainian Cossack leaders such as Mazepa, Paliy, Holovatyj, Sirko being accomplished players of the kobza , bandura or torban.
The first dedicated musical academy was set up in Hlukhiv, Ukraine in and students were taught to sing, play violin and bandura from manuscripts. As a result, many of the earliest composers and performers within the Russian empire were ethnically Ukrainian, having been born or educated in Hlukhiv, or had been closely associated with this music school.
Ukrainian classical music falls into three distinct categories defined by whether the composer was of Ukrainian ethnicity living in Ukraine, a composer of non-Ukrainian ethnicity who was born or at some time was a citizen of Ukraine, or an ethnic Ukrainian living outside of Ukraine within the Ukrainian diaspora. The music of these three groups differs considerably, as do the audiences for whom they cater.
Since the mids, Western-influenced pop music has been growing in popularity in Ukraine. Folk singer and harmonium player Mariana Sadovska is prominent. Modern musical culture of Ukraine is presented both with academic and entertainment music. Ukraine has five conservatories, 6 opera houses, five houses of Chamber Music, Philharmony in all regional centers. Ukraine has had an influence on the history of the cinema.
Ukrainian directors Alexander Dovzhenko , often cited as one of the most important early Soviet filmmakers, as well as being a pioneer of Soviet montage theory , Dovzhenko Film Studios , and Sergei Parajanov , Armenian film director and artist who made significant contributions to Ukrainian, Armenian and Georgian cinema. He invented his own cinematic style, Ukrainian poetic cinema, which was totally out of step with the guiding principles of socialist realism. Despite a history of important and successful productions, the industry has often been characterised by a debate about its identity and the level of European and Russian influence.
Ukrainian producers are active in international co-productions and Ukrainian actors, directors and crew feature regularly in Russian Soviet in past films. Held annually in October. Ukrayinska Pravda  was founded by Georgiy Gongadze in April the day of the Ukrainian constitutional referendum. Published mainly in Ukrainian with selected articles published in or translated to Russian and English, the newspaper has particular emphasis on the politics of Ukraine.
Freedom of the press in Ukraine is considered to be among the freest of the post-Soviet states other than the Baltic states. Freedom House classifies the Internet in Ukraine as "free" and the press as "partly free". Press freedom has significantly improved since the Orange Revolution of However, in Freedom House perceived "negative trends in Ukraine".
Kiev dominates the media sector in Ukraine: the Kyiv Post is Ukraine's leading English-language newspaper. National newspapers Den , Mirror Weekly , tabloids, such as The Ukrainian Week or Focus Russian , and television and radio are largely based there, although Lviv is also a significant national media centre. The Ukraine publishing sector, including books, directories and databases, journals, magazines and business media, newspapers and news agencies, has a combined turnover.
BBC Ukrainian started its broadcasts in Ukrainians listen to radio programming, such as Radio Ukraine or Radio Liberty , largely commercial, on average just over two-and-a-half hours a day. Several television channels operate, and many Websites are popular. Ukraine greatly benefited from the Soviet emphasis on physical education. Such policies left Ukraine with hundreds of stadia, swimming pools, gymnasia and many other athletic facilities. The top professional league is the Vyscha Liha "premier league". This award was only presented to one Ukrainian after the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Andriy Shevchenko.
The national team made its debut in the FIFA World Cup , and reached the quarterfinals before losing to eventual champions, Italy.
Ukrainian boxers are amongst the best in the world. Also hailing from the Ukraine, Vasyl Lomachenko , the and Olympic Gold Medalist, and fastest to become Division World Champion in three weight divisions in just twelve professional fights and current Lightweight Champion.
Sergey Bubka held the record in the Pole vault from to ; with great strength, speed and gymnastic abilities, he was voted the world's best athlete on several occasions. Basketball is becoming popular in Ukraine. In , Ukraine was granted a right to organize EuroBasket Euroleague participant Budivelnyk Kyiv is the strongest professional basketball club in Ukraine. Chess is a popular sport in Ukraine. Ruslan Ponomariov is the former world champion.
There are about 85 Grandmasters and International Masters in Ukraine. Rugby league is played throughout Ukraine. Ukraine made its Olympic debut at the Winter Olympics. So far, Ukraine at the Olympics has been much more successful in Summer Olympics medals in five appearances than in the Winter Olympics. Ukraine is currently ranked 35th by number of gold medals won in the All-time Olympic Games medal count , with every country above it, except for Russia, having more appearances. The traditional Ukrainian diet includes chicken, pork, beef, fish and mushrooms. Ukrainians also tend to eat a lot of potatoes, grains, fresh, boiled or pickled vegetables.
Ukrainian specialties also include Chicken Kiev and Kiev cake. Ukrainians drink stewed fruit , juices, milk, buttermilk they make cottage cheese from this , mineral water, tea and coffee, beer, wine and horilka. Official Soviet data is not available because the Soviet government denied the existence of the famine.
See the Holodomor article for details. Sources differ on interpreting various statements from different branches of different governments as to whether they amount to the official recognition of the Famine as Genocide by the country. Russia is the only country possessing European territories larger than Ukraine.
On the other hand, when the question 'What language do you use in everyday life? Welcome to Ukraine. February Retrieved 11 July From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the country. For other uses, see Ukraine disambiguation. For other uses, see UKR disambiguation. Sovereign state in Eastern Europe. Coat of arms. Show globe. Show map of Europe. An independence referendum was held on 1 December, after which Ukrainian independence was finalized on 26 December.
Main article: Name of Ukraine. Main article: History of Ukraine. Main article: Kievan Rus'. Main article: Ukrainian War of Independence. See also: Ruthenians and Ukrainians in Czechoslovakia — See also: Holodomor. Main article: Orange Revolution. Main articles: Euromaidan and Ukrainian revolution. Further information on the ongoing protests: Timeline of the Euromaidan. Pro-Russian protesters in Donetsk , 8 March Crimea , which Russia annexed in , is shown in pink. Main article: Geography of Ukraine.
Further information: Climate of Ukraine. Further information: Wildlife of Ukraine. The speckled ground squirrel is a native of the east Ukrainian steppes. White storks are native to south-western and north-western Ukraine. Main article: Constitution of Ukraine. Main articles: Judicial system of Ukraine and Law enforcement in Ukraine.
Main articles: Administrative divisions of Ukraine and Ukrainian historical regions. Khmeln- ytsky. Ivano- Frankivsk. Main article: Armed Forces of Ukraine. Main article: Economy of Ukraine. This section needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. October Main articles: Transport in Ukraine and Ukrainian Railways. HRCS2 multiple unit. Rail transport is heavily utilised in Ukraine. A typical Ukrainian couchette for long distance trains. Main article: Energy in Ukraine. Main article: Renewable energy in Ukraine.
Main articles: Internet in Ukraine and Telecommunications in Ukraine. Main article: Tourism in Ukraine. Main article: Demographics of Ukraine. Composition of Ukraine by nationality Ukrainians. Main article: Religion in Ukraine. Religion in Ukraine as of Razumkov Center  Orthodox. Main article: Health in Ukraine. Main articles: Education in Ukraine and List of universities in Ukraine. The University of Kiev is one of Ukraine's most important educational institutions. Main article: List of cities in Ukraine. Largest cities or towns in Ukraine Geonames.
Main article: Ukrainian culture. Main article: Ukrainian literature. Taras Shevchenko , self-portrait. Lesya Ukrainka , one of the foremost Ukrainian women writers. Main article: Ukrainian architecture. Main article: Music of Ukraine. Main article: Cinema of Ukraine. Main article: Media of Ukraine.
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Main article: Sport in Ukraine. Main article: Ukrainian cuisine. Ukraine portal Europe portal. Ukrainian Office of Statistics. Archived from the original on 17 December Retrieved 17 April Average annual populations January-May ". Retrieved 11 August International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 7 May World Bank.
Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Tajikistan Turkmenistan Uzbekistan. Armenia Azerbaijan Georgia. Afghanistan Pakistan. Belarus Ukraine. Previous Next. October 30, GMT. See comments Print. The captured colors of Kyiv accentuated by jazz accompaniment by composer Volodymyr Huba make this film one of the most accurate illustrations of the mood of the city in the s. The palette of the moods of the evening is well complemented by a short comedy film about the capital of Ukraine in the s, Kyiv Smiles , featuring the incomparable duo Shtepsel and Tarapunka.
This film by Israel Goldstein became the first public testimony of the demolition of the Wall of Remembrance — a series of original monumental bas-reliefs spanning over 2, square meters on Bajkova Hill in Kyiv. Yet the campaign to restore the Wall of Remembrance still has produced no results. Director: Hryhoriy Kokhan. Screenplay: Hryhoriy Mjestechkin.
Mosaic art stone paining in Ukraine has deep roots.